isibhengezo_sekhasi

Ngokusho kwesigaba, izinzwa ze-infrared zingahlukaniswa zibe izinzwa ezishisayo nezinzwa ze-photon.

Inzwa eshisayo

Umtshina oshisayo usebenzisa i-elementi yokubona ukuze umunce imisebe ye-infrared ukuze ukhiqize ukukhuphuka kwezinga lokushisa, bese uhambisana nezinguquko ezimpahleni ezithile zomzimba.Ukulinganisa izinguquko kulezi zakhiwo ezibonakalayo kungakala amandla noma amandla ewadonsayo.Inqubo ethize imi kanje: Isinyathelo sokuqala ukumunca imisebe ye-infrared ngomtshina oshisayo ukuze kubangele ukunyuka kwezinga lokushisa;isinyathelo sesibili ukusebenzisa imiphumela ethile yokushisa komtshina oshisayo ukuguqula ukukhuphuka kwezinga lokushisa kube ushintsho kugesi.Kunezinhlobo ezine zezinguquko zezakhiwo ezibonakalayo ezivame ukusetshenziswa: uhlobo lwe-thermistor, uhlobo lwe-thermocouple, uhlobo lwe-pyroelectric, nohlobo lwe-Gaolai pneumatic.

# Uhlobo lwe-Thermistor

Ngemuva kokuthi izinto ezizwela ukushisa zimunca imisebe ye-infrared, izinga lokushisa liyakhuphuka futhi inani lokumelana liyashintsha.Ubukhulu bokushintshwa kokumelana bukhulu namandla emisebe ye-infrared amuncwe.Izitholi ze-infrared ezenziwe ngokushintsha ukumelana ngemva kokuba into imunca imisebe ye-infrared zibizwa ngokuthi ama-thermistors.Ama-thermistors ngokuvamile asetshenziselwa ukukala imisebe eshisayo.Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zama-thermistors: insimbi ne-semiconductor.

R(T)=AT−CeD/T

R (T): inani lokumelana;T: izinga lokushisa;A, C, D: ama-constants ahluka ngempahla.

I-thermistor yensimbi ine-coefficient yezinga lokushisa elihle lokumelana, futhi inani layo eliphelele lincane kunalelo le-semiconductor.Ubudlelwano phakathi kokumelana nezinga lokushisa ngokuyisisekelo buqondile, futhi bunamandla okumelana nezinga lokushisa eliphezulu.Isetshenziswa kakhulu ukulinganisa izinga lokushisa lokulinganisa;

Ama-thermistors we-semiconductor ahlukile nje, asetshenziselwa ukutholwa kwemisebe, njengama-alamu, amasistimu okuvikela umlilo, nokusesha nokulandelela irediyetha eshisayo.

# Uhlobo lwe-Thermocouple

I-Thermocouple, ebizwa nangokuthi i-thermocouple, iyisisetshenziswa sokuqala sokutholwa kwe-thermoelectric, futhi isimiso sayo sokusebenza siwumphumela we-pyroelectric.I-junction eyakhiwe ngezinto ezimbili ezihlukene zekhondatha ingakhiqiza amandla e-electromotive lapho kuhlangana khona.Ukuphela kwe-thermocouple ethola imisebe kubizwa ngokuthi ukuphela okushisayo, kanti omunye umkhawulo ubizwa ngokuthi ukuphela okubandayo.Okubizwa ngokuthi umphumela we-thermoelectric, okungukuthi, uma lezi zinto ezimbili ezihlukene ze-conductor zixhunywe ku-loop, lapho izinga lokushisa emajoyini amabili lihlukile, lamanje lizokhiqizwa ku-loop.

Ukuze kuthuthukiswe i-coefficient yokumunca, i-foil yegolide emnyama ifakwe ekugcineni okushisayo ukuze yakhe impahla ye-thermocouple, engaba insimbi noma i-semiconductor.Isakhiwo singaba umugqa noma ibhizinisi elimise okwe-strip, noma ifilimu elincanyana elenziwe ubuchwepheshe be-vacuum deposition noma ubuchwepheshe be-photolithography.Ama-thermocouple ohlobo lwebhizinisi asetshenziswa kakhulu ekukaleni izinga lokushisa, futhi ama-thermocouples ohlobo lwefilimu elincanyana (ahlanganisa ama-thermocouple amaningi ochungechungeni) asetshenziswa kakhulu ukukala imisebe.

Isikhathi esingaguquguquki sohlobo lwe-thermocouple infrared detector sikhulu kakhulu, ngakho-ke isikhathi sokuphendula side kakhulu, futhi izici eziguqukayo zimbi kakhulu.Imvamisa yokushintsha kwemisebe ohlangothini olusenyakatho kufanele ngokuvamile ibe ngaphansi kuka-10HZ.Ekusetshenzisweni okungokoqobo, ama-thermocouples amaningana avame ukuxhunywa ochungechungeni ukuze akhe i-thermopile ukuze kutholakale ukushuba kwemisebe ye-infrared.

# Uhlobo lwe-Pyroelectric

Izitholi ze-Pyroelectric infrared zenziwe ngamakristalu e-pyroelectric noma "i-ferroelectrics" ene-polarization.Ikristalu ye-Pyroelectric iwuhlobo lwekristalu ye-piezoelectric, enesakhiwo esingeyona i-centrosymmetric.Esimweni semvelo, izikhungo zokushaja ezinhle nezingezinhle azihambisani eziqondisweni ezithile, futhi inani elithile lezindleko ze-polarized zenziwa endaweni ye-crystal, ebizwa ngokuthi i-polarization ezenzakalelayo.Lapho izinga lokushisa le-crystal lishintsha, lingabangela isikhungo sezindleko ezinhle nezimbi ze-crystal ukushintsha, ngakho-ke inkokhelo ye-polarization ebusweni ishintsha ngokufanele.Ngokuvamile indawo yayo ithwebula amashaji antantayo emkhathini futhi igcine isimo sokulingana kukagesi.Lapho ubuso be-ferroelectric busezingeni likagesi, lapho imisebe ye-infrared i-irradiated ebusweni bayo, izinga lokushisa le-ferroelectric (ishidi) likhuphuka ngokushesha, amandla e-polarization ayancipha ngokushesha, futhi ukushaja okuboshiwe kunciphisa kakhulu;kuyilapho ukushaja okuntantayo ebusweni kushintsha kancane.Alukho ushintsho emzimbeni wangaphakathi we-ferroelectric.

Esikhathini esifushane kakhulu kusukela ekushintsheni kokuqina kwe-polarization okubangelwa ukuguquka kwezinga lokushisa esimweni sokulinganisa kukagesi endaweni futhi, amacala antantayo angaphezulu avela ebusweni be-ferroelectric, okulingana nokukhulula ingxenye yenkokhelo.Lesi simo sibizwa ngokuthi umphumela we-pyroelectric.Njengoba kuthatha isikhathi eside ukuthi inkokhiso yamahhala inciphise ukushaja okuboshiwe ebusweni, kuthatha imizuzwana engaphezu kwembalwa, futhi isikhathi sokuphumula se-polarization ezenzakalelayo ye-crystal sifushane kakhulu, cishe imizuzwana eyi-10-12, I-pyroelectric crystal ingasabela ekushintsheni kwezinga lokushisa okusheshayo.

# Uhlobo lwe-pneumatic ye-Gaolai

Lapho igesi ithatha imisebe ye-infrared ngaphansi kwesimo sokugcina umthamo othile, izinga lokushisa lizokhula futhi ingcindezi izokwanda.Ubukhulu bokukhuphuka kwengcindezi bulingana namandla emisebe ye-infrared amuncwe, ngakho-ke amandla emisebe ye-infrared emuncwayo angalinganiswa.Izitholi ze-infrared ezenziwe yilezi zimiso ezingenhla zibizwa ngokuthi izitholi zegesi, kanti ithubhu ye-Gao Lai ingumtshina wegesi ojwayelekile.

Inzwa yefothoni

Ama-Photon infrared detectors asebenzisa izinto ezithile ze-semiconductor ukukhiqiza imiphumela ye-photoelectric ngaphansi kwemisebe ye-infrared radiation ukushintsha izakhiwo zikagesi zezinto.Ngokulinganisa izinguquko ezakhiweni zikagesi, ukushuba kwemisebe ye-infrared kunganqunywa.Izitholi ze-infrared ezenziwe umphumela we-photoelectric zibizwa ngokuhlanganyela ngokuthi ama-photon detectors.Izici eziyinhloko ukuzwela okuphezulu, isivinini sokuphendula esisheshayo kanye nemvamisa yokuphendula ephezulu.Kodwa ngokuvamile idinga ukusebenza emazingeni okushisa aphansi, futhi ibhande lokubona lincane kakhulu.

Ngokusho kwesimiso sokusebenza komtshina we-photon, ingahlukaniswa ngokujwayelekile ibe yi-photodetector yangaphandle kanye ne-photodetector yangaphakathi.Ama-photodetectors angaphakathi ahlukaniswe ngama-photoconductive detectors, ama-photovoltaic detectors kanye nama-photomagnetoelectric detectors.

# Isitholi sesithombe sangaphandle (idivayisi ye-PE)

Lapho ukukhanya kwenzeka ebusweni bezinsimbi ezithile, ama-oxide ensimbi noma ama-semiconductors, uma amandla e-photon emakhulu ngokwanele, indawo engaphezulu ingakhipha ama-electron.Lesi simo sibizwa ngokuhlanganyela ngokuthi i-photoelectron emission, eyingxenye yomphumela we-photoelectric wangaphandle.Amashubhu ezithombe namashubhu e-photomultiplier angowalolu hlobo lomtshina we-photon.Isivinini sokuphendula siyashesha, futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo, umkhiqizo weshubhu le-photomultiplier unenzuzo ephezulu kakhulu, engasetshenziselwa ukulinganisa kwe-photon eyodwa, kodwa ububanzi be-wavelength buncane kakhulu, futhi olude kakhulu luyi-1700nm kuphela.

# Umtshina we-Photoconductive

Lapho i-semiconductor imunca ama-photon esigameko, amanye ama-electron kanye nezimbobo ku-semiconductor ziyashintsha zisuka esimweni esingesona i-conductive ziye esimweni esikhululekile esingaqhuba ugesi, ngaleyo ndlela andise ukuqhutshwa kwe-semiconductor.Lesi simo sibizwa ngokuthi umphumela we-photoconductivity.Izitholi ze-infrared ezenziwe umphumela we-photoconductive wama-semiconductors zibizwa ngokuthi ama-photoconductive detectors.Njengamanje, iwuhlobo olusetshenziswa kakhulu lomtshina we-photon.

# Umtshina we-Photovoltaic (idivayisi ye-PU)

Lapho imisebe ye-infrared ikhanyiswa ekuhlanganeni kwe-PN kwezakhiwo ezithile ze-semiconductor, ngaphansi kwesenzo senkambu kagesi ekuhlanganeni kwe-PN, ama-electron amahhala endaweni engu-P aya endaweni engu-N, futhi izimbobo endaweni engu-N zithuthela endaweni. Indawo ye-P.Uma i-PN junction ivuliwe, amandla engeziwe kagesi akhiqizwa kuzo zombili iziphetho ze-PN junction ebizwa ngokuthi i-photo electromotive force.Izihloli ezenziwe kusetshenziswa i-photo electromotive force effect zibizwa ngokuthi ama-photovoltaic detectors noma ama-junction infrared detectors.

# Umtshina we-Optical magnetoelectric

Inkambu kazibuthe isetshenziswa eceleni kwesampula.Lapho i-semiconductor surface ithatha ama-photons, ama-electron nezimbobo ezikhiqizwayo zisakazwa emzimbeni.Phakathi nenqubo yokusabalalisa, ama-electron nezimbobo zisuswa kuzo zombili iziphetho zesampula ngenxa yomphumela wensimu yamagnetic yangemuva.Kunomehluko ongaba khona phakathi kweziphetho zombili.Lesi simo sibizwa ngokuthi umphumela we-opto-magnetoelectric.Izihloli ezenziwe ngomphumela wesithombe-magnetoelectric zibizwa ngokuthi ama-photo-magneto-electric detectors (okubizwa ngokuthi amadivaysi e-PEM).


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Sep-27-2021